China

The top 20 countries where Christianity is growing the fastest

20 Countries where Christianity growing fastest

I’ve just stumbled on this report from the Centre for the Study of Global Christianity.

They identified the top 20 countries that have the highest percentage Christianity Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR). The number of years for the number of Christians to double, based on the Average Annual Growth Rate has also been calculated.

Top 20 countries where Christianity is growing fastest table

Notice a few things:

  • 19 of the countries in the top 20 are in Asia and Africa.
  • 11 countries on the top 20 list are Muslim majority countries.
  • not a single country from Europe, Northern America or Latin America makes the top 20 list
  • the highest Christian growth rates are found among all major non-Christian religious groups: Hindus, Non-Religious, Buddhists, Muslims and Ethno-religionists (Benin and South Sudan)?
  • the majority of the top 20 countries are clustered in three areas: Eastern Asia, Western Africa and the Arabian Peninsula
I’m amazed by the figures out of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, UAE, Oman, Bahrain,Yemen and Kuwait. Obviously the percentage increase is off a small base. Does anyone know if this growth is among Arabs or is it among migrant workers?
 
An interesting omission is Iran. I keep hearing stories of Iranians coming to Christ both in Iran and among the Iranian diaspora. Perhaps the growth has picked up since the report was written.
 
There is also some amazing growth among the people of north India. I’d like to see a list of the top 50 countries.
 
(Thanks to Grant Morrison for the heads up.)

UPDATE: Thanks to reader Tomas for providing this link to more details from the report. Table 3 shows the impact of immigration on the growth of Christianity in Arab Muslim countries. So some good news, but the figures look much better than they are.
 
Related:

The price they paid

Destroy the old world Cultural Revolution poster In all the excitement of what God is doing in China today, let’s not forget the price that was paid by both Western missionary pioneers and Chinese believers.

According to Stark and Wang…

Nearly half of all Protestant missionaries who came to China before 1891 died or went home due to ill health. Infant and childhood mortality rates were three times higher than back home.

In 1899 the Boxer Rebellion resulted in the death of over 30,000 Chinese Christians as well as 47 Catholic priests and nuns and 136 Protestant missionaries and 53 of the children.

Even before they came to power, the Communists were killing Christians. Between 1945-48 Chinese Communist forces killed 96 Catholic missionaries including 12 nuns. Once they were in power the Communists continued to imprison, torture and kill Catholic believers, priests, nuns and bishops.

Most well-known Chinese church leaders ended up in prison or worse.

Watchman Nee was arrested in 1952 and spent the rest of his life in prison under harsh conditions. He died in prison 1972.

Wang Zhiming was arrested with his wife and three sons at the height of the Cultural Revolution in 1969. On December 29, 1973 Wang was brutally executed in a stadium in Wuding in front of a crowd of 10,000, most of them Christians.

Samual Lamb was imprisoned in 1957 and released. Immediately he began preaching again. He was re-arrested in 1958 and imprisoned until 1978 under harsh conditions. Upon his release he restarted his “house church” although now it could no longer fit inside a house as it had grown to 4-5,000 people.

In 2001 fifty agents of the Public Security Bureau invaded Samuel Lamb’s unregistered church, ransacking the building and destroying equipment. Lamb was imprisoned again. He refused to relent and was released after international pressure.

As so many Christian leaders were dead or in prison Li Tianen devoted himself to training young leaders. Out of his efforts arose the Fangcheng Fellowship which become one of the largest of all house church movements in China.

In 1975 he was arrested and given a death sentence. A huge flood forced the postponement of his first scheduled execution. The second execution date was interrupted by an internal Communist Party power struggle. One of Li’s most bitter enemies was the local secretary of the Communist Party, Fang Iancai. Fang’s faction lost power and he ended up sharing Li’s death row cell. Li led Fang to Christ. Li eventually was released and Fang’s sentence was commuted to 15 years in prison.

By 2010 the Fangcheng Fellowship had an estimated membership of 10 million.

Other leaders who suffered under the Communists include Wang Mindao, Yuan Xiangchen, John Sung, Li Tianen. These prominent leaders are a tiny representation of the many thousands of ordinary believers who suffered for Christ under the Communists.

Christianity in China — a few facts and some surprises

Stark Wang A few interesting and occasionally surprising facts from A Star in the East by Stark and Wang:

  • Christianity is growing everywhere in China. Christianity is growing just as fast in the cities as in the rural districts.
  • There is a prevalence of well-educated Chinese among urban Christians in China.
  • The more affluent rural Chinese are more likely to convert.
  • The middle-aged are more likely to convert than the young or elderly.
  • Most rural Chines were introduced to Christianity by their family, friends and neighbours. In one study 90% of people had their initial contact with Christianity through interpersonal ties.
  • Christians are significantly more likely than other Chinese to say they are “very happy”—44% compared to 34%.
  • A substantial number of Communist Party members are Christians.
  • We should expect the spread of Christianity among the Chinese to substantially improve their physical and mental health. Backed up by this study from Peking University.

Factors in the growth of Christianity in China

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My notes on some of the reasons for the growth of (Protestant = evangelical) Christianity in China given by  Stark and Wang :

Persecution was the single most important factor in the growth of Christianity in China since 1949. By expelling Western missionaries the Communists completed the transformation of Protestantism in China into an entirely Chinese movement.

Some Western Protestant missionaries had begun to lose faith not only in missions but in Christianity. Their expulsion protected the Chinese church from the debilitating influence of theological liberalism. Luke-warm liberalism cannot generate high levels of commitment.

Persecution results in a high level of member intensity. High levels of commitment are required for rapid growth. Committed people share their faith with others.

Most conversions occur through networks of interpersonal relationships. Conversion is not a very visible phenomenon. To deprive a faith of a public presence has little impact on its growth if members are engaged privately in converting their friends and family.

During the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) most churches were destroyed or converted into other uses. Thousands of clergy were jailed or forced into re-education camps. The Catholics were vulnerable due to their hierarchical structure and dependence on ordained clergy and sacred buildings. Soon their was an acute shortage of priests. Without priests there were no Masses and no baptisms.

In contrast, Protestants had a seemingly inexhaustible supply of preachers, male and female. Any devoted believer can conduct a church gathering. Protestants are able to pray, read the Bible and worship in homes.

In 1950 the Catholics outnumbered Protestants by 3 to 1. Today Catholics are outnumbered by Protestants 10 to one and the ratio is increasing.

How many Christians are there in China? Estimates and Trends.

Christians in China 1980 2040 Stark Wang A Star in the East

Estimates of the number of Christians in China vary greatly. In A Star in the East: The Rise of Christianity in China, Stark and Wang chose 1980 as the base year for their estimates. Christianity had just become legal and somewhat visible.

They estimated that in 1980 there were 10 million Christians in China.

Next they examined a 2001 study by the Research Centre for Contemporary China (Peking University) and a second survey conducted in 2007 by Horizon, China’s largest most respected polling firm.

They concluded that in 2007 there were 60 million Christians in China.

If their estimates are correct, from 1980 to 2007 Christianity in China grew from 10 million to 60 million at a rate of 7% per year.

If that rate of growth continues for just the next ten years, there will be more Christians in China than any other nation on earth. If a 7% annual growth rate continues, by 2040 there will be almost 600 million Christians in China.

China — the first post-religious society or the nation with the most Christians on earth?

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A few notes from A Star in the East: The Rise of Christianity in China ….

In the 1940s Western academics like Harvard’s John K Fairbank, were proclaiming it had “become evident that few Chinese people are likely to become Christians and that the missionaries’ long-continued effort, if measured in numbers of converts, had failed.”

In 1949 the Chinese Communists came to power and within a few years had expelled all Western missionaries. China was to become the model of a fully secularized post-religious society.

By the best estimates, in 1949, there were around 1 million Chinese Protestants and 3.2 million Catholics. From the beginning the Communist Party opposed all forms of religious faith, although the fiercest and deadliest persecution awaited the Cultural Revolution of 1966.

The death of Mao in 1976 led to a relaxation of persecution, and by 1979 one million Protestants had become 5 million and 3.2 million Catholics had become 5 million, mostly due to fertility.

By 2007 there were as many Christians in China as members of the Communist Party. Today Christians greatly outnumber party members, although increasingly there is an overlap between the two affiliations. [Yes, there are now many members of the Communist Party who are Christians.]

If this rate of increase continues for just ten more years, there will be more Christians in China than any other nation in the world.

It appears that faith in a coming post religious China has been revealed as the opium of Western intellectuals. The foolishness of God has shamed the wise. The weakness of God has overpowered the strong.

Rodney Stark on the rise of Christianity in China UPDATED

I read everything Stark writes on movements. I haven’t been disappointed yet.

"A Star in the East: The Rise of Christianity in China" (Rodney Stark, Xiuhua Wang)

UPDATE: The publisher has provided a sample of the book.